Why this course?

Master the fundamentals of international cyber law as you watch recorded lectures by the world's leading scholars in the field; meet with the instructors and fellow participants in live sessions; and complete the course with a University of Reading Executive Education certificate.

Hear from the Cyber Law International Academy team why you should take this course


    Online. Complete the majority of the requirements on your own schedule over fourteen weeks. Log on at designated times for live sessions with faculty and fellow participants. Weekly average time commitment of 2 hours.


    Government officials working in cyber affairs, including lawyers, diplomats, policy makers, cyber operators; staff of international organizations and NGOs; employees of technology companies; attorneys; international law scholars and students.


    Each year, registration opens for 2-3 cohorts to take the course. See information about ongoing or upcoming cohorts here.


Michael Schmitt

Professor Michael Schmitt is the Director of Legal Affairs at Cyber Law International. He is also Professor of Public International Law at the University of Reading, the G. Norman Distinguished Scholar at the Lieber Institute of the United States Military Academy at West Point, Strauss Center Distinguished Scholar and Visiting Professor of Law at the University of Texas, Charles H. Stockton Distinguished Scholar in Residence at the United States Naval War College’s Stockton Center for International Law, and Senior Fellow at the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence.

Marko Milanovic

Professor Marko Milanovic is of-counsel with Cyber Law International. He is also Professor of Public International Law at the University of Reading, Senior Fellow at the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, and co-editor of EJILTalk, the blog of the European Journal of International Law. Professor Milanovic has held visiting professorships at Michigan Law School, Columbia Law School, Deakin Law School, the University of the Philippines College of Law, and the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. He has served as counsel and advisor in proceedings before the International Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights, and the Constitutional Court of Serbia.

Course Features

Expect all this and more from the leading University of Reading certified course in international cyber law. You will have fourteen weeks to complete the coursework. The sessions are split into two blocks, with each of the study periods ending with two live sessions with the faculty.

  • World-renowned faculty – learn from the leading experts in international cyber law

  • Independent learning – recorded lectures on topics ranging from sovereignty to the law of armed conflict, split into chunks and concluding with multiple choice tests for a self-paced and structured learning experience

  • Live sessions – meet with the professors twice for practical case study sessions as well as for two roundtable discussions

  • Complimentary e-copy of the Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law of Cyber Operations (value 69.99 USD) – receive the key reference source in international cyber law

  • Certified by the University of Reading – upon successful completion of the course, receive an executive education certificate of completion

  • Community building – meet colleagues working in international cyber affairs from around the world

Course Curriculum

    1. Part 1: Learning Objectives

    2. Part 2: History of International Cyber Law

    3. Part 3: Debate on International Cyber Law at the United Nations

    4. Part 4: Sources of International Cyber Law

    5. Part 5: Treaties as a Source of International Cyber Law

    6. Part 6: Treaty Interpretation Rules

    7. Part 7: Custom as a Source of International Cyber Law

    8. Part 8: Crystallisation Versus Interpretation of Customary Cyber Law

    9. Part 9: Subsidiary Sources of International Cyber Law

    10. Part 10: Is "Soft Law" a Source of International Cyber Law?

    11. Part 11: International Cyber Law, Summary

    12. Part 12: Enforcement of International Cyber Law

    13. Part 13: UN Groups of Governmental Experts & Open-Ended Working Groups

    14. Part 14: Confidence-Building Measures for Cyberspace

    15. Test Your Knowledge

    1. Part 1: Learning Objectives

    2. Part 2: Definition of Sovereignty

    3. Part 3: Is Cyberspace a Global Common?

    4. Part 4: Does Sovereignty Apply in Cyberspace and If So, Who Must Respect It?

    5. Part 5: When Do Cyber Operations Violate Sovereignty?

    6. Part 6: Cyber Operations That Breach Territorial Integrity and Inviolability

    7. Part 7: Cyber Operations That Breach Territorial Integrity and Inviolability, Examples

    8. Part 8: Cyber Operations That Interfere With or Usurp Inherently Governmental Functions

    9. Part 9: Sovereignty Violations in Cyberspace, Czech Republic Example

    10. Part 10: Status of Sovereignty as a Rule of International Law in the Cyber Context

    11. Part 11: Unsettled Issues

    12. Part 12: Cyber Operations Against Sovereign Immune Platforms

    13. Part 13: Derivative Principles

    14. Test Your Knowledge

    1. Part 1: Learning Objectives

    2. Part 2: Definition of the Due Diligence Obligation

    3. Part 3: State Views on Due Diligence in the Cyber Context

    4. Part 4: Due Diligence Principle Deconstructed

    5. Part 5: Geography: Where Does a State Bear the Due Diligence Obligation?

    6. Part 6: Threshold of Harm – What Effects Must the Target State Suffer?

    7. Part 7: Threshold of Harm Cont’d – What Effects Must the Target State Suffer?

    8. Part 8: Territorial State's Knowledge of Malicious Cyber Operations

    9. Part 9: Conduct Required of a "Diligent" State – Temporal Factor

    10. Part 10: Conduct Required of a "Diligent" State – Feasibility Factor

    11. Part 11: Remaining Issues

    12. Part 12: Policy Relevance of the Due Diligence Obligation in Cyberspace

    13. Test Your Knowledge

    1. Part 1: Learning Objectives

    2. Part 2: Legal Basis of the Non-Intervention Principle

    3. Part 3: Does the Prohibition of Intervention Apply in Cyberspace?

    4. Part 4: Why is the Prohibition Relevant in Cyberspace and Why Can It Be Difficult to Apply?

    5. Part 5: Non-Intervention as an Inter-State Rule and Its Elements

    6. Part 6: Definition of Internal or External Affairs

    7. Part 7: Definition of Coercion

    8. Part 8: Two Different Concepts of Coercion

    9. Part 9: Examples of Coercive Cyber Operations?

    10. Part 10: Failed Cyber Intervention? Threatened Cyber Intervention? Consensual Intervention?

    11. Part 11: Was Stuxnet Prohibited Intervention?

    12. Part 12: Interference in US 2016 Presidential Elections as Prohibited Intervention?

    13. Part 13: Was Wannacry Prohibited Intervention?

    14. Part 14: Final Thoughts

    15. Test Your Knowledge

    1. Part 1: Learning Objectives

    2. Part 2: Definition of Use of Force and the Prohibition’s Applicability to Cyber Operations

    3. Part 3: Legal Bases for Lawfully Using (Cyber) Force

    4. Part 4: Cyber Operations as Uses of Force

    5. Part 5: Can Cyber Operations with Non-Physical Effects Amount to a Use of Force?

    6. Part 6: Can an Unintentional Cyber Operation Qualify as a Use of Force?

    7. Part 7: Threat of a Cyber Use of Force

    8. Test Your Knowledge

About This Course

  • 195 lessons
  • 14 weeks

Watch a sample lesson

Participant Testimonials

"The International Law of Cyber Operations Executive Course was exceptional, and I cannot recommend it highly enough. It was an absolute delight to participate in.

The creators of the course material and the professors delivering the lectures were clearly subject matter experts, and their expertise shone through in their ability to structure the course content and explain complex topics in a clear and concise manner. The lectures were engaging and provided valuable insights.

Overall, I highly recommend this course to anyone looking to gain knowledge and skills in the nascent field of International Cyber Law. It truly exceeded my expectations." 

Vafa Izadinia, Head of Information Security, Global non-profit organization (Cohort 1)

• • •

"I’ve attended so many cyber law courses, but this one's intuitive training equipped me
with knowledge and confidence. I also believe that it will help me in my future academic
as well as professional career in international cyber law."

• • •

"Hands-down the most engaging and professionally beneficial online course
 I have taken in a LOOONG time!"

• • •

"The course is thorough and the professors are top notch – this is an excellent introduction
to the murky intersection of cyber space legal framework and international relations."

• • •

"It was simply great to attend this course and would do anything to attend another one
by this organization and the team."

Have questions? Is your organisation interested in supporting our scholarship programme?

Reach out to us at [email protected]