Why the Responses Package?

In today's interconnected world, cyber operations have become an integral part of statecraft and international relations. As technology advances, so do the complexities and challenges surrounding cyber operations and their legal implications. The International Law of Cyber Operations: Responses Package Course is designed to provide you with a comprehensive understanding of the legal rules for attributing cyber operations to states, as well as the various international law bases for states to respond to malicious cyber activities, such as resporting to countermeasures or engaging in self-defence.


    4.5 hours of captioned video lessons on complex legal concepts, split into bite-sized, manageable chunks for a self-paced and effective learning experience. Multiple choice tests to assess understanding of the subject matter.


    Government officials working in cyber affairs, including lawyers, diplomats, policy makers, cyber operators; staff of international organizations and NGOs; employees of technology companies; attorneys; international law scholars and students.


    Upon registration you will gain immediate access to the entire course content for 90 days.


Michael Schmitt

Professor Michael Schmitt is the Director of Legal Affairs at Cyber Law International. He is also Professor of Public International Law at the University of Reading, the G. Norman Distinguished Scholar at the Lieber Institute of the United States Military Academy at West Point, Strauss Center Distinguished Scholar and Visiting Professor of Law at the University of Texas, Charles H. Stockton Distinguished Scholar in Residence at the United States Naval War College’s Stockton Center for International Law, and Senior Fellow at the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence.

Marko Milanovic

Professor Marko Milanovic is of-counsel with Cyber Law International. He is also Professor of Public International Law at the University of Reading, Senior Fellow at the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, and co-editor of EJILTalk, the blog of the European Journal of International Law. Professor Milanovic has held visiting professorships at Michigan Law School, Columbia Law School, Deakin Law School, the University of the Philippines College of Law, and the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. He has served as counsel and advisor in proceedings before the International Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights, and the Constitutional Court of Serbia.

Responses Package Features

  • World-renowned faculty. You will be learning from leading experts in the world who possess extensive knowledge and practical experience in the field of international law.

  • Flexible Learning. We understand that your time is valuable. That's why our course is designed to fit into your busy schedule. With 24/7 access to our online learning platform, you can study at your own pace and revisit the course materials whenever necessary. You will have 90 days of unlimited access to the course content, ensuring you have ample time to grasp the concepts and principles effectively.

  • Engaging Multimedia Content. Learning should be an immersive experience. Our course incorporates a variety of engaging multimedia elements – interactive videos, case studies, real-world scenarios, and quizzes to enhance your understanding and make the learning process enjoyable.

  • Open to all. There are no mandatory requirements to enroll in this course. Whether you are a legal professional, government official, military personnel, cyber law researcher, or simply interested in expanding your knowledge of international law and cyber operations, this course is open to all.


    1. Part 1: Learning Objectives

    2. Part 2: State Views on the Applicability of the Law of State Responsibility in Cyberspace

    3. Part 3: Law of State Responsibility in a Nutshell

    4. Part 4: Definition of Internationally Wrongful (Cyber) Act

    5. Part 5: Cyber Operations as Breaches of International Obligations

    6. Part 6: Technical, Political and Legal Attribution

    7. Part 7: Attribution of Cyber Operations – Basic Analytical Approach

    8. Part 8: Attribution of Cyber Operations – State Organs and Entities Empowered by Law

    9. Part 9: Attribution of Cyber Operations – Non-State Actors

    10. Part 10: Attribution of Cyber Operations – Evidence

    11. Part 11: Evidence of Cyber Operations – Public Accusations

    12. Part 12: Evidence of Cyber Operations – Judicial Proceedings

    13. Part 13: Evidence of Cyber Operations – Unilateral Self-Help

    14. Part 14: Justifications for Breaching Legal Obligations in Cyberspace (Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness)

    15. Part 15: Consequences of Unlawful Cyber Operations

    16. Test Your Knowledge

    1. Part 1: Learning Objectives

    2. Part 2: Definition of Countermeasures

    3. Part 3: Purpose of Cyber Countermeasures

    4. Part 4: Types of (Cyber) Countermeasures and the Requirement of Proportionality

    5. Part 5: Must an Injured State Notify the Responsible State Before Taking (Cyber) Countermeasures?

    6. Part 6: Relationship Between the Use of Force Prohibition and Countermeasures

    7. Part 7: Cyber Countermeasures That Bleed Over Into Third States

    8. Part 8: Collective Cyber Countermeasures

    9. Part 9: Countermeasures and Mistaken Attribution

    10. Part 10: Plea of Necessity in Response to Cyber Operations

    11. Part 11: Definition of the Plea of Necessity

    12. Part 12: Limitations on the Plea of Necessity

    13. Part 13: Distinguishing the Plea of Necessity from Countermeasures

    14. Test Your Knowledge

    1. Part 1: Learning Objectives

    2. Part 2: Definition of Use of Force and the Prohibition’s Applicability to Cyber Operations

    3. Part 3: Legal Bases for Lawfully Using (Cyber) Force

    4. Part 4: Cyber Operations as Uses of Force

    5. Part 5: Can Cyber Operations with Non-Physical Effects Amount to a Use of Force?

    6. Part 6: Can an Unintentional Cyber Operation Qualify as a Use of Force?

    7. Part 7: Threat of a Cyber Use of Force

    8. Test Your Knowledge

    1. Part 1: Does the Right of Self-Defence Apply in Cyberspace?

    2. Part 2: Difference Between Cyber Use of Force and Cyber Armed Attack

    3. Part 3: Definition of Cyber Armed Attack

    4. Part 4: Examples of State Views on the Cyber Armed Attack Threshold

    5. Part 5: Can the Effects of Cyber Operations Be Aggregated to Qualify as an Armed Attack?

    6. Part 6: Who Can Conduct a Cyber Armed Attack?

    7. Part 7: Engaging in Self-Defence Against a Non-State Actor Located in Another State

    8. Part 8: Requirement of Necessity

    9. Part 9: Anticipatory Self-Defence Against Cyber Armed Attack

    10. Part 10: How Long After a Cyber Armed Attack is Self-Defence Available?

    11. Part 11: Applying Imminence and Immediacy Principles in the Cyber Context

    12. Part 12: Requirement of Proportionality

    13. Part 13: Collective Self-Defence Against Cyber Armed Attacks

    14. Part 14: Responses Against Cyber Operations That Do Not Amount to Armed Attacks

    15. Test Your Knowledge

About This Course

  • 55 lessons
  • 4.5 hours of video content
  • Access for 90 days

Watch a sample lesson

Upgrade to Full Course

We understand that your thirst for knowledge may extend beyond the scope of the Responses Package Course. As a participant in the International Law of Cyber Operations: Responses Package Course, you have the exclusive opportunity to upgrade at any time to the full University of Reading certified International Law of Cyber Operations Executive Course. This program provides a deeper dive into the intricacies of international cyber law, offering a more comprehensive learning experience.

By upgrading, you will gain access to additional modules, expert-led live webinars, and exclusive learning resources. You'll have the chance to engage in advanced discussions and explore cutting-edge topics in international cyber law, including emerging challenges and legal responses.

To make this upgrade seamless, we will deduct the full amount of the Responses Package Course fee from the International Law of Cyber Operations Executive Course tuition. This means you can continue your learning journey without any financial loss.

For more information about the International Law of Cyber Operations Executive Course, please visit the course website. To secure your upgrade, contact us at [email protected].

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